So, what is a Djembe?
“Djembe is a skin-covered hand drum shaped like a large goblet and meant to be played with bare hands” Wikipedia
A good description I think.
Originally found in West Africa and played during celebrations and ceremonies, the Djembe has captivated, dominated and controlled thousands of people in one way or another. The tonal breadths are amazing and with an accomplished player can hypnotise even the most reserved within the community.
Traditionally a prospective Djembe player would follow a master Djembe player to events, playing accompaniment to the band, learning rhythms and generally becoming one with the Djembe. Today a Djembefola or “one who gives the Djembe voice” gathers together students into small groups and teaches them techniques and rhythms. Becoming a master Djembe player takes years of practice, dedication and love of the drum.
Djembe drums are made in various West African cities/towns and crafted in different types of wood. Generally hardwood drums have a heavier and sharper sound and are popular amongst the professional and master players. The head of the drum is traditionally made from an animal skin of some sought. Goat and cow skins are the most popular types used. The drums can be tuned to sound wet (ringing / reverb) or dry (a tight cracking sound). Tuning of the drum is done by adjusting the roping used to keep the drum head and body together.
There are a few basic rhythms used to learn and practice the Djembe. One very popular method has been given the affectionate name “Crocodile walking”, due to the way the arms alternate from centre to the edge of the Djembe. Other popular rhythms are “Jole” and “Kuku”.
Drumming Builds Up A Healthy Sweat
African drumming may soon emerge as an effective stress reliever and full body workout, according to researchers.
“The African drum is lifted off the floor and clasped between the knees so the legs, core muscles in the back, and pounding arms are exercised,” Professor Carine Smith, associate professor at the Department of Physiological Sciences at Stellenbosch University.
Certified African drum percussionist, Bevil Spence, was used as a guinea pig for laboratory testing. He was also tested at his drumming circle in Somerset West.
How the research was done
Jeandre Viljoen, research assistant for the study, found that “in some stages of the drumming session his heart rate went up to more than 80% of its estimated maximum rate”.
This is equivalent to a strenuous aerobics session during which lots of energy is spent.
“African drumming presents itself as an alternative for people that do not like traditional forms of exercise,” Smith said.
She added that the approach to drumming will determine the outcome. Drumming needs to be results-driven and performed at an adequate level of intensity.
Drumming for 45 minutes to an hour should be enough to build up a healthy sweat similar to what would be experienced during a normal aerobics session.
Previous studies have also found that the rhythmic sounds of the African drum have anti-stressing properties.
However, Smith’s study is the first to look at the physical health benefits of African drumming.
It is set to be published in an internationally accredited local journal in the near future.
(Dane McDonald, News24, July 2012)
YouTube user MrFasthands65 has posted more than 1,000 videos of himself drumming on top of popular songs. “Fun is learning something and doing it well in your own mind,” Lou, as he’s known on the Web, writes. “Perfection or striving for it is work and ruining your fun. As I aged I realized no one can be perfect, for there will always be some self-proclaimed critic to tell you you’re not.”
But Lou isn’t just drumming for psychological fulfillment. He plays the drums to help combat a very rare neurological condition known as chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, or CIDP. This autoimmune disorder, which affects about seven in 10,000 people, causes numbness and pain in the limbs and imbalance walking. Lou has found that drumming relieves him of these symptoms. And he’s not alone.
Though the field is small, the research behind drumming as an effective treatment for various symptoms is mounting. “Drumming increases T-cell count,” Robert Lawrence Friedman, a psychotherapist based in New York, told The Daily Beast from Switzerland, where he’s leading a drum-based youth leadership workshop. Friedman authored The Healing Power of the Drum, a 2000 book that was the first to explore the relationship between wellness and drumming.
“When people drum, something happens to their brain that only happens when people are drumming together or when people are in deep meditation,” he explained. “The brain usually operates with either the left or right side independently. People generally cycle in 20 minutes per side. But when drumming, we experience something called hemispheric synchronization, where both sides work at the same time. Scientists believe this is the basis of transcendent states of consciousness. People feel two opposite emotions simultaneously: energized and relaxed.”
In 2001, Dr. Barry B. Bittman co-authored a paper titled Composite Effects of Group Drumming Music Therapy on Modulation of Neuroendocrine-Immune Parameters in Normal Subjects. Bittman’s study showed that there was a significant boost in the activity of “cellular immune components responsible for seeking out and destroying cancer cells and viruses were noted in normal subjects who drummed.” In short, drumming can increase the presence of T-cells, the white blood cell that fights viruses.
Remo, the largest manufacturer of drumheads in the world, has a health-science department that corroborates the benefits of drumming outside of music: better of quality of life for at-risk youth, increased bonding and creativity in seniors, improved mood and reduced dropout rates in students, and stress reversal on the genomic level (yes, it appears that drumming can lead to better genes). That 2005 study was also co-authored by Bittman (independently of Remo), showing that recreational music making, particularly drumming, can reverse 19 genetic responses to stress.
Friedman expanded the case for drumming as therapy even further: “I’ve explored how drumming can be used with Alzheimer’s patients and autistic children, giving them an external stimuli. It helps with attention and focus. We’ve also explored therapy with Parkinson’s patients. When a patient listens to the beat, they are able to walk, helping them on a fundamental level.”
Above all, though, the benefits of drumming seem to mostly be psychological and emotional. The Wahlbangers Drum Circle Organization, a group based in Northern California, has been using drumming as an effective treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder in veterans. In 2008, Science Direct Journal published a study titled Drumming Through Trauma: Music Therapy With Post-Traumatic Soldiers. It showed that “a reduction in PTSD symptoms was observed following drumming, especially increased sense of openness, togetherness, belonging, sharing, closeness, connectedness and intimacy, as well as achieving a non-intimidating access to traumatic memories, facilitating an outlet for rage and regaining a sense of self-control.”
Friedman recounted one of his early therapy sessions with a woman who had recently lost a 19-year-old son. She was distraught and sad walking through a park on Long Island when she joined a drum circle on a whim. “After about 30 or 40 minutes she started to feel happy,” Friedman said. “She felt a lightness. She went back to the drum circle the next month and found the same sequence of emotions she experienced the first time: anger, sadness, joy. After nine months she said that all of her anger and sadness had disappeared.”
Most of the research is focused on group drumming. Perhaps this is why Lou, drumming alone in his studio, posts his videos to the Web—the solitude of the drum kit is not as fully beneficial as when drumming with others. In this age, even the tribe is online.